Oct 13

# Thought Experiment: Nuclear Mass Defect

## Introduction

Without explaining the underlying components of the theory, that would be letting the cat out of the bag, sort-of-speak. I am going to reveal a thought experiment that would help prove my underlying theory is correct.

If Particle Mutation Theory (PMT) is correct, we should be able to see something in the universe that may be unexplained or unexplored, but nonetheless can be used as proof that PMT has merit. I have chosen the Nuclear Mass Defect as a means to reveal something about physics that until now has remained unknown to science.

When nuclear fusion or fission occurs, there is a loss or increase in mass. Einstein explained the mass defect as the nuclear binding energy that is lost or gained during nuclear reactions. But what if he failed to understand the subtleties of this reaction? It’s as if Einstein merely explaining what he saw on the surface without comprehending why it was so. Overall, his assertion complimented his math.

## Fusion

Here is a crude diagram Firgure 1 of the nuclear mass defect for fusion. The vertical axis is mass and the horizontal axis is time. Notice how there is a decrease in mass over time. Figure 1: Nuclear Mass Defect During Fusion: Loss of Mass explained by Einstein as Nuclear Binding Energy

Since the time interval between the reaction point and the end of the red line very VERY small, this interpretation of reality is a good one.  However, what if reality looked more like Figure 2. Figure 2: Nuclear Mass Defect Alternative.  Gradual loss of mass due to a combination of the loss of nuclear binding energy and a temporary increase in mass that is not permanent

PMT expects a temporary increase in mass during a nuclear reaction, but we do not see that in practice.  PMT asserts the increase in mass, that is temporary, is not observed because it is disguised by a loss in mass caused by Einstein’s nuclear binding energy.

We could test for this assertion if we were able to take a small enough slice in time and monitor for a gradual decline in mass over time, as seen by the slanted red line in Figure 2.  The gradual decline occurs because the loss in mass, which can be considered instant is partially obstructed by an increase in mass that intensifies shortly after the point of reaction, reaches a maximum, and then declines to normal.  In the end, all we see is the decrease in mass overall. Figure 3: Nuclear Mass Defect Time Interval Importance.  t2 – t1 is the time interval required to test the existence of PMT and a temporary increase in mass

If we were able to measure the rate of change of the nuclear mass defect, for example, measuring several increments between t1 and t2, we would be able to prove without a doubt that there is more going on when explaining the nuclear mass defect.  The nuclear binding energy is an incomplete solution.  In fact, it would provide credence to the concept of the mutation agent / particle and show a temporary increase in mass during a nuclear reaction or event.

### About the Author: Christopher Binns Founder & CEO of Bizstim Software Solutions. Particle Physics Enthusiast. My Particle Mutation Theory (PMT) is capable of bridging the knowledge gap between quantum physics and general relativity. This website is designed to provide thought experiments that can be used to prove the validity of PMT. Prove me wrong if you can!

1. Christopher Binns

Added May 29, 2021

A possible way to get more refined interval testing is as follows:

— conduct particle accelerator experiments in Earth’s orbit
— take measurements of the reaction at specific times that are hard coded (mass detection)
— vary the velocity of the experiment resulting in time variations proportional to t1 and t2 points described above
— the result standardizes observational points of time using Einstein’s Law of Relativity
— theoretically this would provide the necessary observational data between two points in time that are infinitely close to one another

2. Christopher Binns

I fixed incorrect labeling of the heading. The diagram above depicts a FUSION event not a fission event.

3. Christopher Binns

Does anyone have data related to particle acceleration and or the nuclear mass defect? I would love to be able to piece together mass within the system shortly after a nuclear reaction. Can we determine the mass within a particle accelerator? If yes, do we have that type of data available?

I would like to determine if there is a change in the rate of mass after the point of reaction. If the mass defect can be characterized through observation to be like Figure 2 or Figure 3 then we have proof of the potential of PMT.